General Site Information
History of LTV Steel
History of LTV Steel Site
Development Topics Considered
Master Plan of LTV site
Current Status of the Site
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Site: LTV South Side Works
Location: South Side, Pittsburgh, Pa; along East Carson Street and the Monongahela River (See Figure 1)
Date Built: First Developed by Monongahela Water Compnay 1893
Size: 130 Acres
Owner: Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA)
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In 1947, James J. Ling started an electrical construction and engineering firm in Dallas, Texas. Through a number of takeovers and mergers, the company that Ling established eventually became known as Ling-Temco-Vought. Then, in May of 1971, Ling-Temco-Vought became the LTV Corporation. LTV acquired Jones and Laughlin Steel (J&L) in 1974. LTV had three main areas of business: steel (J&L), meat packing, and aerospace ("LTV Corporation.", 1988). In 1984, LTV took over Republic Steel and combined with J&L to form the subsidiary LTV Steel Co. These companies merged to form the second largest steel producer in the nation (Dallas AP, 1985). LTV Corp. also includes the subsidiaries LTV Energy Products Co. and LTV Aerospace and Defense Co. (Gaynor, 1986).
J&L was a Pittsburgh based company˙all three of its manufacturing facilities were located there. The three locations of the plants were: the north side of the Monongahela River along Second Avenue, the south side of the Monongahela River along East Carson Street, and along the Ohio River in Aliquippa, Pa., twenty miles south of Pittsburgh (81 Years of Iron and Steel, 1931). The plant (see Figure 2) located on East Carson Street had open hearth furnaces, blooming and billet mills (see Figure 3) and shops. The South Side plant was connected to the north side plant by a bridge, which had two regular railroad tracks and one hot metal train track (Ess, 1954).
Republic Steel Corporation was formed from a merger between the Interstate Iron and Steel Company and Central Alloy Steel Corporation. As a result of the merger, Republic Steel became the third largest steel producer in the nation. Republic Steel was one of the leading researchers and producers of stainless steel. At the time when stainless steel was a new product, they had the equipment and technology to place them among the top competitors in the steel market ("Republic Engineered Steel.", 1988).
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J&L has been located on the South Side site since at least 1893. Below is a listing of other organizations which have been located on the site at some point during the past.
(Above Information from Sanborn Map Company.)
Figure 4 shows the LTV plant in operation during the early 1980's
Many organizations, city officials, and community members have taken an interest in what would become of the LTV site. At one point, the intention of promoting the LTV site as an historic landmark became a possibility because of an attempt by City Councilman Otis Lyon. Lyon wanted the Bessemer converter building, an open hearth building, four smokestacks, and a J&L sign to be preserved as a tribute to the many steel mills which once dominated the economy, culture, and skyline of the city of Pittsburgh. However, this plan fell through when it was determined that these structures posed a safety hazard (Donovan, 1988).
One of the most important aspects which needs to be addressed when determining what to do with any possible building site is the effect on and integration of the new development and the surrounding area and communities involved. In this case, the area we are concerned with is the South Side, a part of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Figure 5 shows the site in relation to the South Side and the Pittsburgh Technology Center (PTC). The PTC, which is now located on the former J&L north side (of the Monongahela) plant, was once a brownfield. The South Side is a combination of business, community, and culture. For example, East Carson Street contains many restaurants, bars, and coffee houses which are very popular. East Carson Street also contains many small and independently owned clothing and art stores. The South Side also supports the culture by providing opportunities for advancement of the arts. For example, The Brew House, once an old brewery, was transformed into a space which artists can live, work, and exhibit their art. Along with the mix of business and culture, a strong community developed. The South Side is a growing area which contains much history. This area has always been an important part of Pittsburgh.
The history and culture of the South Side need to be addressed in every plan on the development of the LTV site which is devised. Without examining these issues, it is likely that either the new development would not survive or a negative effect on the culture and economy of the South Side would result.
Since the LTV plant halted operations, there was much speculation and interest as to what the site could be transformed into. Many studies have been conducted to help decide what the optimal use of the land would be. Various plans have also been developed. Below, we will discuss two plans that were once considered as possible developments, but rejected. These two plans are:
One of the first options considered was that of riverboat gambling. Hospitality Franchise Systems, Inc. (HFS), an entertainment management organization based out of Parsippany, New Jersey, was initially interested in developing a riverboat gambling complex and family entertainment center at the old LTV site (Heyl, 1993). In 1993, the URA borrowed money from HFS and purchased the LTV site for $9.3 million. At that time, river gaming was not legal. Despite efforts to change this, the Pennsylvania legislature did not pass the law which would make riverboat gambling legal. HFS had to abandon the plan of a riverboat gambling complex. Since that time, the URA has paid back HFS and is now the owner of the LTV site.
Another option considered as a possible development on the LTV site was a ballpark for the Pittsburgh Pirates. The establishment of a group in charge of selecting a site for a new ballpark occurred in 1996. The group had to consider many aspects and rules while looking for a possible site for the ballpark. For example, they would like to have a site which has a view of the Pittsburgh skyline, but at the same time, they must contend with the Major League Baseball rule which states the setting sun cannot be in the batter s eyes. After taking into account various considerations, they concluded that the old LTV site would not be a prospective area to build the new ballpark (Belko, 1996).
After much consideration and speculation as to what the site would become, a master plan for the South Side Works has been developed. The future of this site, as described by Sasaki Associates, Inc., is one with research & development, light industrial, retail, professional offices, residential and open spaces (see Table 1 below). According to Sasaki Associates, this plan will offer the potential for high-quality employment.
|Land Use||Development Program|
|Research & Development (R&D)||1.0-1.5 million SF|
|Light Industrial/Flex||400,000-5000,000 SF|
|Retail (neighborhood/specialty)||100,000-200,000 SF|
|Retail (community/regional)||150,000-250,000 SF|
|Professional Offices/Services||75,000-100,000 SF|
|Open Space||26 acres|
Table 1: Estimated Land Use of the South Side Works
Sasaki developed this plan along with the citizens of the South Side community in order to create a plan that would best benefit the community. Included in the plan is a "Town Square" which will have a park that extends into Riverfront Park. It is believed by Sasaki that the amount of open space as well as the town square and extensions of Riverfront Park will enhance the land values for adjacent property.
Perhaps one of the most interesting aspects of the plan is the residential area. The two residential areas are riverfront with open land on at least one side. The amount and location of retail space available is also advantageous to the South Side economy and community because it will be located on East Carson Street but also next to the residential area, where pedestrian shopping access will be maximized. Specialty shops and local retail are expected to use most of the retail space, sometimes mixing with professional offices. There is also the possibility of a hotel.
A total of 11 parcels have been defined on the site, as can be seen in Figure 6. A description of the acreage and parcel use are discussed below.
Parcel #1 (9.89 acres) is recommended to be a multi-family residential area with 30-40 units per acre. The area would have riverfront views, access to the triangular park and Riverfront Park, a private marina, and Town Square. Extending 26th street would be necessary.
Parcel #2 (1.3 acres) would be a public parking garage to be used for the Town Square, the retail areas, as well as other commercial and residential uses.
Parcel #3 (1.97 acres) is proposed to be used as a mixed-use retail and professional office building. Street level would include neighborhood and specialty retail uses while the upper levels would be office space for services, small businesses and professionals.
Parcel #4 (2.0 acres) is the site of the Town Square. This area is recommended to be a public open space for passive recreation and community events. It will also connect the South Side to the riverfront.
Parcel #5 (2.88 acres) will be the triangular park. This area would also be a connection between the South Side and the riverfront. It will provide both passive and active recreation.
Parcel #6 (14.87 acres) is recommended for extensive R&D development. This will be similar to the Pittsburgh Technology Center. When there is sufficient market support, street level retail and restaurants are recommended along East Carson Street, the riverfront street, and facing the Town Square. In later development phases structured parking is planned.
Parcel #7 (9.45 acres) is planned for multiple uses. R&D, light industrial/flex development and structured parking, are among the uses designed for. However, because the LTV Coke plant is still present, parking and R&D could not be developed as soon as light industrial/flex could be.
Parcel #8 (13.38 acres) is planned for retail that would require automobile access. This could include a supermarket, or large retail area with several levels. Structured and surface parking are options for the automobile access.
Parcel #9 (15.51 acres) has room on the riverfront portion for small footprint buildings with several stories while the section facing East Carson Street is more suitable for larger single level buildings.
Parcel #10 (11.71 acres) for light industrial/flex use, has room for buildings with one to three stories on the riverfront portion, but because of the confinements of the railroad tracks, the East Carson Street portion may be suitable for light industrial/flex or commercial space.
Parcel #11 (1.54 acres) is recommended for a mix of retail, R&D or professional offices. This area may also require additional land acquisition in order to better suit all or one of these options.
(Above parcel information provided by South Side Works Master Plan.)
|Parcel #||Use of Parcel||Acreage|
|2||Public Parking Garage||1.3|
|3||Mixed-Use Retail and Professional Office Building||1.97|
|7||R&D Development, Light Industrial/Flex and Structured Parking||9.45|
|8||Community and Regional Retail||13.38|
|11||Retail, Professional Office, or R&D Development||1.54|
Table 2: Summary of Parcel Use
One of the possible problems that could arise as a result of the development which must be addressed is the additional traffic generated. As part of the master plan devised by Sasaki Associates, Inc., a traffic analysis was conducted by Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc. The study entitled "Existing and Future Transportation System and Conditions Technical Memorandum" resulted from their research. This study concluded that the existing roadway system in place would need to be improved in order to support the additional traffic generated by the new development.
At the current time, East Carson Street is the only road which provides access to the LTV site. East Carson Street is already a heavily traveled, congested road. The amount of additional traffic on East Carson Street due to the development is dependent upon the improvements and additions made to the road system surrounding the site.
|1||Prohibit Parking on East Carson Street Between 22nd and the Site||$1.0|
|2||Level 1 and Add a Ramp from the Site tot he Birmingham Bridge||$7.0|
|3||Level 1 and Convert the Hot Metal Bridge to a 2-Lane Road Bridge||$10-$13|
|4||Levels 1, 2 and 3||$16-$19|
|5||Level 1 and Build a New 4-Lane Bridge Where the Hot Metal Bridge Now Exists||$21|
|6||Levels 1, 2 and 5||$27|
Table 3: Possible Roadway Improvements around the LTV Site
Figure 7 shows the Birmingham Bridge where a ramp could possibly be built to connect the South Side Works with the north side of Pittsburgh. As the study reported, the amount of improvements made to the road system depend on the amount of development which is done. It was also determined that the planned construction of the Mon-Fayette Expressway would divert some traffic from East Carson Street, but it would not provide better access to the LTV site.
(All of the above information from "South Side Works: Traffic Analysis and Roadway Improvement Needs." prepared by Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc.)
In order to examine the result of the increase in traffic, a traffic simulator program was used in this case study. The area modeled consisted of East Carson Street from 22nd Street to Becks Run Road. Traffic counts for the area defined were obtained from the Department of City Planning for the city of Pittsburgh. Blueprints of the area streets were obtained from the city of Pittsburgh s Department of Engineering and Construction. Part of the data for this part of the case study has been collected and organized; however, more research still needs to be conducted in this area.
Most of the LTV site has been cleared of any buildings, however two structures still remain. A hot metal bridge (see Figure 8) and a power plant (see Figure 9), which are leased to LTV Steel, are existing on the site and are in operation. The bridge and plant are used in LTV s operations at their coke plant in Hazelwood, PA (Knezevich, 1996). The rest of the site has been cleared of the previously existing structures, as shown in Figures 10and11.
Phase I and Phase II environmental assessments have been conducted by Civil & Environmental Consultants (CEC), Inc. The site was found to be contaminated with metals such as arsenic, chromium, nickel, lead, and zinc as well as semi-volatile organics, PCBs, and petroleum hydrocarbons. However, even though there are many soil contaminations, the groundwater is only contaminated at one location on the site, near the tar tank area.
The URA and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) are currently in the process of determining what site remediation is needed (Knezevich, 1996). However, the recommendations of Civil & Environmental Consultants, Inc. are for minimal soil cleanup (up to residential standards) since the contaminants that are in the soil tend to adhere themselves to soil and not drain into the groundwater. Because of the lack of groundwater contamination, an argument can be made for no action for much of the site if the material is isolated from contact by burial under fill or capped. It will be necessary to remediate the area causing groundwater contamination. CEC, Inc. also recommends that a site-specific health and safety plan be developed for future work at the site (Civil & Environmental Consultants, 1994).
Once the site of one of the busiest steel mills in the Pittsburgh area, the LTV site on the South Side of Pittsburgh now exists as nothing more than an abandoned cleared field. However, through much planning, cooperation, and support, the old LTV site will soon become an important economic and cultural part of the South Side.
Sasaki Associates, Inc., along with members of the South Side Community and the Urban Redevelopment Authority have worked together to create a master plan for the abandoned steel mill that will not only enhance the South Side community, but bring employment and help to boost the area s economy. The mix of retail, residential, research and development, and light industrial areas are just what the South Side needs to fill the long empty site. The URA is currently in the middle of exclusive negotiations with The Galbreath Company, the master developer of the site, to make this addition to the South Side community a reality.
Web Pages for the LTV South Side Works
Site Created By: Adrienne Messenger, Carnegie Mellon University.
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Last Updated: August 24, 1998.